Lion Tailed Macaque (Macaca Silenus)
- Family: Cercopithecidae
- Genus: Macaca
- Species: M. Silenus
Common name: Lion Tailed Macaque
- Average Male Weight: 7 kilograms
- Average Female Weight: 5 kilograms
- Age of Maturity: 2.5-4 years
- Life Expectancy: about 20 years
- Head to tail length: 45-60 cm (both male and female)
- Black or dark brown fur with long sliver white hair around the face.
- Face is furless and black.
- Small tuft of hair at the end of the tail (like a lion tail).
Male has more prominent tuft then females.
- Cheeks are like pouches to carry food in.
- Spends most of the time in trees.
- Males have large canines.
Geographic Location and Range of Species:
- Southeast India (Ghats)
- Long narrow band of forest that measures 850 km long and 30 km wide.
- Tropical wet evergreen forest.
- Omnivorous-eats plant and animal life
- Indigenous fruits.
- Leaves, buds, seeds, and flowers.
- Insects and small vertebrates.
- Arboreal living style: large individual spaces to themselves and they feed on a variety of different fruits, most of their time is spent exploring and gathering food.
- They gather all their food.
- Live in groups of about 15-20.
- Many females and few males. (3 to 1 ratio)
- Male leader of the group.
- Very territorial.
- Young males leave the group once they become mature.
- Females remain in same group for life.
- Begin to mate once they hit of the age of 2.5-4 years after birth, can mate the whole year.
- Gestation period- last six months, then a single offspring is born.
- Offspring is born every other year.
- Sexual skin under tail that swells during estrus.
- Nurtured by parent for a year.
- Vocal and visual communication
- Scream calls: a loud scream is made when a non-group member approaches.
- Loud call: from the male, to keep the group spaced.
- Fear grimace: (visual cue) to reduce aggression. Lips curl so the teeth are exposed and clenched together.
- Staring with open mouth: (visual cue) expressing a threat. Staring with the mouth open but teeth are not exposed.
Clarke, A S., N M. Czekala, and D G. Lindburg. “Primates.” Behavioral and adrenocortical responses of male cynomolgus and lion-tailed macaques to social stimulation and group formation 36.1 Jan. (). Web. 7 Feb. 2011.
Honnavalli N. Kumara and Anindya Sinha (2009). Decline of the Endangered lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India. Oryx, 43, pp 292-298
Singh, W., W. Kaumanns, M. Singh,H.S. Sushma & S. Molur (2009). The Liontailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae): conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(3): 151-157.
Fa, John E., and Donald G. Lindburg. Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. New York: Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge, 1996. N. pag. Web. 7 Feb. 2011.