Tears of the Desert: Children and their roles in the community, their attitudes, etc.

Chapter 1

P6-In the Zaghawa tribe, children must be named within seven days of birth.

P7-A tradition of the tribe is to name children after their grandparents.

Chapter 2

P14-Children, especially Halima at this age, find the traditional cuts/scars fascinating and beautiful.

P17-Halima’s mother tells the story of Grandma Sumah’s father who had so many wives who had given birth to so many children that he didn’t know their names. He would have to ask “Who is your mother?” in an attempt to place the child.

P18-Children are to sleep in the women’s or men’s huts with the elders and other relatives, not with the parents who have their own separate hut.

P18-Children’s clothing: Simple styles.

For girls a cotton dress that covered shoulder to ankle, bare feet, and beeri hairstyle. (Beeri-one braid parallel to the forehead and the rest braided down the head to the back.) No Bob Marley styled hair!

P18-20-Halima and her friend, Kadiga are beginning to realize what skin color and hairstyles are more attractive in their culture.

P19-“Men of our tribe preferred lighter, more reddish skinned women” & “Above all else Zaghawa men prized a woman’s long hair.”

P20-Children’s chores: firewood gatherers and carriers, and water gatherers.

P26-Expectations of children (daughters especially): “In Zaghawa culture, there was nothing worse than the thought that your daughter might fail to find, or keep, her own Zaghawa man.”

Chapter 3

P28-Children’s chores: Halima is in charge of making the yogurt. She milks the cows, store the milk in a tagro, and then shake the container until the mixture would separate into butter and yogurt.

P30-Firstborn Zaghawa males are named after the Islamic prophet, Mohammed.

P30-Sibling rivalries: Halima’s younger brother, Mohammed, gets to sleep with their mother and soon seems to be her favorite. Halima grows envious.

P31-Children of the village use their imagination to entertain themselves. They jump on their father’s land rover, play the shadow game, make rag dolls from old clothes, straw, wool and even hair, mold horses and cars out of clay, and play the infamous moon bone game.

P36-Halima now fears the scarring that she had once wanted so badly.

Chapter 4

P42-In Zaghawa tradition, parents name their second-born son the father’s surname.  In this case, Omer.

P44-45-Children to children interaction: play fighting, tree climbing and adventuring.

P45-Chlidren’s chores: Planting the sorghum and maize in the fields.

P45-Sibling rivalry over who can plant the fastest.

Chapter 5

P54-For most Zaghawa children before the age of eight, the only education comes from the Koran.

P54-Before receiving formal education girls must go through their own circumcision which represents the change from girlhood to womanhood. Girls are usually around the ages 8-10 when this happens.

P60-Most children go to schools where no uniforms and shoes were needed and class was held under a tree. Only the wealthy could afford Halima’s type of schooling.

Chapter 6

P69-71-Halima and other black girls notice the hostility and differneces between the cultures in school. (Arabs vs. Africans)

P71-72-School enforces cleanliness in their students. The headmaster inspects nails, clothes, faces and hair. If she finds any dirt she cracks you over the head with a stick.

P72-Though claiming to “be growing up” the girls still play on the playground participating in games such as hop-scotch and sock-ball.

P73-Children in awe when seeing the khawajati, white people, at the local market.

P74-Discrimination amongst the Arab and African children.

Chapter 7

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 8

P94-Corruption in administration when dealing with students of Arab and Native African tribe descent.

P99-Halima, as well as the other black girls realize that the Arabs and African students grew up in two completely different worlds. Africans grew up in villages with mud huts whereas the Arabs live in cities with comfortable houses with running water and electricity. They realize that the best is always reserved for the Arabs. Also, they realize that most Arabs have blacks as servants.

P100-Halima loses her naivety of village life vs. city life. She realizes that the attitudes of her childhood friends have completely changed and they view her as an outsider.

P103-Halima’s family gets a TV and the every child ends up in their hut watching the magical box.

Chapter 9

P108-Sibling rivalry/mutiny: When siblings feel that one is loved more than the other.

Omer and Mo feel that Halima is treated differently and finally come to the conclusion that it must be her white eyelash that gives her all of this great fortune. They turn on their sister, pin her down and attempt to slash the eyelash with a kitchen knife.

Chapter 10

P120-Child’s job: Drummer at the wedding has a boy that collects money for him.

Chapter 11

P128-Children’s desires to fulfill their parents’ wishes: Halima faces her final days in secondary school and studies hard so she can be the top of her class and get into a medical program at the university to make her father proud.

Chapter 12

P146-Remembering childhood: Halima realizes how awful it is that her tribe and family made her go through with the circumcision. She feels that this took away her girlhood and child innocence.

Chapter 13

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 14

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 15

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 16

P180-Child victims: Halima tends to many girls who were attacked and gang raped by the Janjaweed.

Chapter 17

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 18

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 19

P211-213-Child victims: Halima once again treats the young school girls who were attacked, beaten, and gang raped by Janjaweed.

Chapter 20

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 21

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 22

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 23

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 24

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 25

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 26

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 27

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

Chapter 28

No Discussion of Children and their roles, etc.

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